ities must design a strategy that
creates incentives and offers competitive prices to attract the level of
shipping business that will justify
the enormous expense and effort
of this project. Such a strategy will
involve increased cooperation between the canal, Atlantic Coast port
operators, East Coast railroads, and
local as well as state governments
along the Atlantic Coast.
It is therefore difficult to predict
the consequences of the Panama
Canal enlargement. The project will
certainly lead to increased competi-
tion between ports and carriers and,
in this, the shippers will be the
clear winners. Atlantic Coast ports
may experience some growth in
traffic, but it may be less than what
is suggested by the optimistic fore-
casts that are the basis for invest-
ments in these ports.
Liliana Rivera is a PhD Candidate
at the MIT Center for Transportation
and Logistics. Yossi Sheffi is the Elisha Gray II Professor of Engineering
Systems and director of the MIT Center for Transportation and Logistics.
Immigration & Integration
THE ROLE OF THE PRIVATE SECTOR
ALEXANDRA DÉLANO AND JASON MARCZAK
The 2010 U.S. Census results underlined not only the dra- matic growth of the U.S. Hispanic population but its high
mobility. In the last decade, data
show that the number of Hispanics jumped by 43 percent—from 35. 3
million in 2000 to 50. 5 million in
2010—with this group accounting
for over half of the total U.S. population increase. Latinos also continue to live in new destinations.
Since 1990, the number of those living in the nine states with the historically highest concentrations
of Hispanics shrank by 10 percentage points to a total of 76 percent.
The rise of the Hispanic population, together with an immigrant
population estimated at 38. 5 million (of which more than half are
from Latin America), continues to
spark a variety of public policy and
private-sector responses. The most
worrisome has been the explosion
of anti-immigrant bills in state legislatures, which claim to be reacting to the absence of nationwide
comprehensive immigration reform
(CIR) and lack of enforcement.
More than 6,600 immigration-re-
lated bills were introduced in states
between 2005 and 2010. Although
only 838 bills were enacted, this
level of activity is a clear illustra-
tion of the anxieties and fears in
many parts of the country.
Since proposed immigration
reforms failed, many
businesses have spoken out
about the socioeconomic
PRIVATE SECTOR FILLS
As the U.S. population ages, the
country’s future economic growth
and competitiveness will depend
on new entrants to the labor
market, and those entrants will
increasingly be foreign born or—
given recent data on fertility
rates—Hispanic. These populations
are already making vast
contributions to their communities.
Supporting their integration
can enhance these benefits.
But CIR and other legislation
that may provide funding for
integration can provide only some
of the help.
That’s why U.S. businesses are
stepping up to fill the void in federal legislative action. Business
leaders across the country are now
promoting integration through em-ployer-led programs and initiatives
involving partnerships between
companies, community groups and/
or local governments to develop
programs that focus on language
instruction, skills training, financial literacy, civic engagement, and
health and wellness.
One example is the proliferation
of programs to improve language
proficiency, a crucial factor for socioeconomic mobility. Companies