Trade Competition from China OSVALDO ROSALES
Evolution of the Share of Chinese Imports: Selected
Countries (Colombia, Brazil and Mexico*), 2005 and 2010
(as a percentage of total apparent consumption)
AND ME TAL
*Figure does not include Argentina. Source: ECLAC Division of International Trade and Integration, on the basis of information of countries’ input-output tables and the UN COMTRADE database
increase in imports of the most affected products, which
reached an above-average annual growth rate. Imports
from China increased by twice the rate of those originating in other countries ( 39 percent versus 18 percent).
Comparatively greater effects were observed in industries in Mexico, which experienced a bigger increase
in apparent consumption in the share of imports from
China, rising from 3. 3 percent to 6. 4 percent between
2005 and 2010. The most affected sectors were the textile and apparel industry, auto parts, industrial machinery and equipment, metals and derivatives, and other
Mexican products with greater sensitivity to increased
imports from China are antibiotics, seamless carbon
steel, alloy steel pipes and chains, coaxial cable, carbon
102 Americas Quarterly WINTER 2012
electrodes, and various types of watches. Responding
to the economic crisis of late 2008 and 2009, the demand for greater restrictions increased.
Mexico applied few restrictive measures such as anti-dumping investigations. The growth rate of Mexican
imports from China was almost five times higher than
the import growth from other countries ( 21 percent versus 4 percent).
Our analysis of exports by destination as well as of imports by origin, with the inclusion of the effect caused
by competition from China in third markets and in the
domestic markets of the four selected countries, found
that the same set of industrial sectors are affected by
Chinese exports: office machinery, metal products,
wood, pulp and paper, textiles and apparel, and foot wear.